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Question:

Which type of test is Joe performing in the case:
Joe is a member of a penetration testing team and is about to begin a test. The customer provided him with a system on one of their subnets but did not offer any authentication information, network diagrams, or other relevant details about the systems.

A Internal, black box
Explaination

Joe is on a network-internal system and has no knowledge of the target's network. As a result, he is conducting an internal, black-box test.