Top 15 Nurse Life Hacks Make Your Nursing Career Easier

In this blog post, we'll share 15 nurse life hacks that will make your nursing career so much easier. Let's read it to get what you need!

January 1, 2022

As a nurse, you are tasked with caring for others and providing the best care possible. It can be hard to stay on top of all that is involved in your job, but these hacks will help simplify things! In this blog post, we’ll share 15 nurse life hacks that will make your nursing career so much easier.

1. When you prime your IV, go as slow as possible

This is because tiny air bubbles can easily be formed when you go full blast with the flow. Therefore, you can start with clamp the tube, then fill the drip chamber and let the fluid flow slowly.

2. When using a tourniquet, you should use gauze to prevent hair pulling

Patients can be suffered from pain because of the friction with hair created by a tourniquet. You can try placing a thin sheet of gauze in between the tourniquet and your patient’s skin to handle this problem. 

If you want to become a nurse, read more about: HESI A2 vs TEAS: Which Exam Is Suitable For You?  

3. Removing blood stains by hydrogen peroxide

When blood left stains on your white uniform or favorite scrub suit and you have to wear them for your entire shift, those blood stains make you look as you’ve just had a battle. But don’t worry, you can easily remove these stains by dropping a few drops of hydrogen peroxide on them. Hydrogen peroxide is considered a stain remover. 

4. Prevent pinching 

Another interesting life hack you need to know is folding a washcloth and tuck it under the front of the bedside commode seat to prevent pinching. 

5. Try double insertion of Foley catheters when you didn’t hit the mark

Honestly, not only new nurses miss the mark but also a veteran fail doing this. Almost all nurses fail to get a foley cath to return when inserting it to a female patient. In this case, you should leave the first catheter in place and try the same procedure with another Foley catheter, aiming higher this time. 

6. Powder a bedpan 

Before you put a patient on a bedpan, remember to powder it. The purpose is to make it easier for evacuation. This life hack is very useful especially when you’re caring for obese patients. 

7. For patients who have a needle phobia

When you have to extract blood for patients who have a needle phobia, remember to ask them to take ten slow and deep breaths before starting to extract blood. The reason is patients can lessen fear and anxiety by deep breathing. 

8. When handling code brown, try the triple gloving method

The triple gloving method not only helps you save time but also limits the chances of your bare hands getting in contact directly with patient’s excretions. The first pair of gloves are used to clean your patient’s poop. The second one is meant for putting on a patient’s new diaper. And, using the third pair of gloves to place a fresh sheet on his bed and in disposing of waste.

9. Eliminate unpleasant odors

Adding grounded coffee beans in your station when you can’t stand the smell is another useful tip you need to know. Coffee powder is a good odor neutralizer, so putting a small container filled with grounded coffee beans right at the center of the area to eliminate the unpleasant smells.

10. If you’re feeling nauseous, using alcohol swabs

You can relieve nausea immediately by swiping an alcohol swab under your nose. This life hack also is very useful if you’re suffering from sinus pain.

11. For stinky situations, put peppermint oil in your mask

When you or your patients feel like vomiting from the bad odors, you can try to place a few drops of peppermint oil in your face mask and breathe through your mouth.

12. You should wear two masks

When you wear two masks, you can smear toothpaste or peppermint oil on the inside of the second mask that helps you tolerate the smell. In addition, it also prevents you from getting toothpaste or peppermint oil on your face or mustache.

13. Using alcohol on matted hair 

Alcohol is a really useful substance in nursing life hack as it also can be used to remove tangles. You can apply a few drops of alcohol on tangle areas when you can’t get through your patient’s hair with a hairbrush. This tip makes your work easier and faster as the alcohol works by breaking any substance that’s causing the tangles. Remember to rub thoroughly alcohol on the hair but gently.

14. Giving patient’s family members a job to do

Involving family members in caring for patients is an effective nurse life hack because the family always wants to be helpful. You can assign them minimal tasks such as holding a hand during a painful procedure, so they will feel like they’re contributing. 

15. Fake a pulse

Your patients will be conscious and immediately start to breathe more if you tell them you are counting their respirations. As a result, you cannot read exactly the patient’s respirations. Instead, don’t tell the patient what you are really doing when checking respirations on a patient. You should pretend like you are assessing his pulse and count the respirations. In addition, it will be better if you can place the patient’s arm across the chest so you can easily feel its rise and fall. 

To sum up, though nursing is not an easy job, it doesn’t mean you can’t make your work easier. You can try to apply our 15 nursing life hacks to make your time on the job easier and more efficient. 

Nurse Life Hacks

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The Comprehensive HESI A2 Math Study Guide In 2022

Our HESI A2 Math Study Guide and our free HESI practice test 2022 will help you get 100% ready for your coming big day. Let's follow this article now!

January 1, 2022

Math is a difficult subject for many people, but it doesn’t have to be. By reading our HESI A2 Math Study Guide and taking our HESI A2 practice test free 2022, you can prepare yourself for your HESI exam and brush up on those math skills that you may not remember from high school or college. This review will help you get ready to ace your next math test with confidence!

Free HESI A2 Math Study Guide

What’s on the HESI A2 Math Test?

The HESI math questions evaluate a candidate’s knowledge of basic math and mathematical concepts and apply that knowledge to presented scenarios. Content includes your understanding of Roman numerals, word problems, calculating dosages, household measures, and conversions.

The subtest is computer-delivered and contains 55 multiple-choice questions. Each question has four possible solutions; there is only one correct answer. Topics included in the Mathematics subtest are: Addition and Subtraction; Whole numbers – multiplication and division; Algebra; Decimals; Fractions; Ratios and proportions; Percentages; Military time; Measures and conversions and Word problems 

You have 50 minutes to complete the exam, and an on-screen calculator is available for your use.

Here are detail in each topic you can expect to see on the HESI A2 Math exam:

Working with whole numbers – the basics of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, etc.

Fractions – how to form them, add, subtract, multiply, and divide them (even when their denominators aren’t the same to express them as percentages, convert them into decimals, mixed fractions, etc.

Percentages – how to derive percentages, what they mean, how to convert them into fractions, how to express them as decimals, how to add, subtract, multiply, and divide with them, etc.

Decimals – what numbers in decimal form represent, how to read them, how to determine the proper placement of the decimal point, add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals, and convert them into fractions, how to express them as percentages, etc.

Ratios and proportions – you’ll need to understand what these are, how they relate to each other, and how to solve problems that ask you to derive one or the other, etc.

General math skills – you’ll see questions about everyday skills like balancing a checkbook, reading a label on a medicine bottle for the correct dose, common measurements such as quartz, pounds, ounces, gallons, pints, and how they relate to each other, etc.

Read more >> The Ultimate Chemistry Study Guide For HESI A2 Exam

What is the best way to study for the HESI?

Hesi a2 math

Here are some tips on how to complete the HESI Basic Math Skills exam successfully:

Manage test anxiety: Get plenty of rest and exercise while preparing for the HESI A2 test. Learn some relaxation techniques that work for you, and don’t forget to eat and drink on exam day.

Be ready for the exam: We recommend at least 1 to 3 months of HESI A2 math review beforehand. Knowing you can do the math will give you great confidence on exam day.

Avoid doing problems in your head: Instead, write out the solution steps using pencil and paper. Our best HESI A2 math practice questions will include guided solutions that show all the work in an organized manner, providing a model to follow when setting up and solving math problems.

Read the questions carefully: It’s also a good idea to draw pictures and highlight keywords if allowed. Finally, don’t forget to use the calculator if it’s available. It would be a shame to give wrong answers due to minor arithmetic errors.

Don’t stress if you can’t answer a question: Go through the problems in order. Skip the ones that seem difficult and go back to them later (if this is allowed). As you answer the easier questions, you’ll gain the confidence you need to tackle the harder problems. For multiple-choice questions, don’t be fooled by distractors. Remember to substitute answer choices as a strategy for solving the more difficult problems.

Use all of the time allowed for the test: If you finish, go back and rework the problems, but don’t change an answer unless you’re certain there’s an error.

Is the HESI math test hard?

If math isn’t your cup of tea, or if it’s been a while since you’ve seen a math problem of any kind, you may find the HESI A2 exam challenge. There’s no need to worry, however, as long as you properly prepare. The best way to successfully navigate the HESI exam is to familiarize yourself with everything you’ll face, then focus your attention on the concepts that give you the most trouble.

As mentioned previously, the math on the HESI A2 test won’t seem hard as long as you’re thoroughly prepared and confident on test day. To be sure you can rely on your skills, you’ll need more preparation than a dry textbook or practice problems without explanations. We highly recommend that you use our online website and our offline app with complete HESI math review and practice tests with a detailed explanation, and short assessments to measure your understanding. It can help you prepare for exam day by giving you a strong math foundation. There are a few tricky problems on it, but if you take your time and work carefully through each one, there’s no way you’ll fail to get at least an 85%.

Thousands of free HESI A2 practice questions and our unique gamified learning technique will boost your knowledge to get the highest score on your coming big day. Let’s practice now!

HESI A2 Reading Comprehension Study Guide In 2022

If you are struggling to prepare for your HESI A2 Reading Comprehension Test, then this is the article for you. Follow this article to know more now!

January 1, 2022

If you are struggling to prepare for your HESI A2 Reading Comprehension Test, then this is the article for you! We have compiled a list of study aids that will help get you ready. These reading comprehension questions go in-depth and focus on specific topics so that if one question stumps you, it won’t matter because there are many more chances to succeed.

As you know, Reading Comprehension is part of the HESI A2 because reading skills are essential to success as a nurse. If you’re planning to attend nursing school, you should be aware that you’re going to be doing quite a lot of reading. To improve your ability and get familiar with the test format, take our free HESI A2 practice test 2022 now!

HESI A2 Reading Comprehension

What’s on the HESI A2 Reading Comprehension Section?

You’ll have 55 multiple-choice questions in this section, and a recommended time limit of 60 minutes, although each school is free to set its own time limit. Reading scenarios that are health-related. The Reading Comprehension test focused on the details below: 

Finding the Main Idea

The main idea is what the text is about and what the author wants you, the reader, to know. If someone were to ask you, “What was that book or article about?” they are asking you about the main idea. When you can tell them succinctly what it is about, you have a grasp on the main idea.

The purpose of the main idea is twofold. First, it lets the reader know what the text is about so that the reader can decide whether or not to continue reading. Secondly, its purpose is to engage the reader quickly. It serves to capture and take hold of the reader within the first minute or two of picking up the text.

How can you identify the main idea? The main idea is usually (but not always) within the first two to three sentences. Often, the main idea is the same as the topic sentence. And even other times, the title is the main idea. After the first paragraph of a text, a reader should be able to identify what the topic and main idea are and what the text is seeking to do. Some questions you can ask yourself after the first paragraph include:

  • Does this book/article/text tell me who, what, where, or how about something?
  • Does this piece’s title tell me what I am reading?
  • What is the point of this text?

Main idea and supporting details

The text you are reading will have additional details that help support or lend credence to the main idea. As you are reading, it is important to stop periodically and measure whether these supporting details help illustrate the main idea and how they relate to each other.

Rereading and reviewing

Sometimes it is necessary to read the text again to decipher the main idea and the supporting details. Read each paragraph carefully and consider why the author is sharing this information

Supporting Details

Supporting details exist to support the main idea. In a paragraph format, these details come after the topic sentence – the first sentence in a paragraph, usually – and before the final sentence. Supporting details serve as pillars to “hold up” the main idea of a passage or paragraph, and could also be identified as proof or evidence of an idea.

Author’s Tone & Purpose

In the HESI A2 Reading Comprehension section, you may meet the questions asking about the author’s tone and purpose.

What is the author’s tone? The author’s tone is the way the author speaks through her/his words. The author’s tone includes the words that he/she uses to describe people, situations, and events. The tone gives the reader clues about how the author thinks or feels about particular subjects and people. We get a sense of the author’s attitude.

What’s its purpose? Part of the purpose of tone is to create the mood of the piece. Mostly, however, the tone of the text gives the reader insight into why the author is writing in the first place, especially in non-fiction writing. The reader can infer the author’s purpose by identifying the tone.

The author’s tone is important because, along with clueing the reader into the purpose of the text, it allows the reader to engage in a deeper way by identifying whether the text is fact or opinion, an expository or persuasive piece, etc. Evaluating the tone also requires the reader to check his or her own biases and prejudices in relation to the topic. Do you find yourself sympathizing with something simply because of how the author speaks? The tone may be partially responsible!

Tone can be tricky to identify, but some general rules are to look to the adjectives and descriptions of people, places, and events in the text. How is the author using his words? What words is he/she choosing? How does he/she compare and contrast within the text?

Is the author trying to prove something to the reader? Or else have something to gain? And are the adjectives used almost exclusively negative or have negative connotations? If asked, how would the author respond about the characters, events, or places? What would their face look like when asked?

Drawing Conclusions and Making Inferences

These are two interwoven ways to come to an understanding of a piece. Drawing conclusions involves looking at the facts, interpreting their purpose and meaning, and coming to a realization using those facts. Meanwhile, making inferences is similar, but rather than coming to a conclusion, facts are used to determine other facts that will eventually lead to a conclusion.

To draw a conclusion, look at the presented facts (and inferences), and determine what the author is saying using these facts. To make an inference, look at the facts presented, and determine what other facts might be realized in conjunction with the existing ones. For instance, if the evidence is presented that a leather shoe is damaged, and the owner of the shoes was near a lake, you can infer that the shoes were damaged by water.

Fact vs. Opinion

This is also a type of question that is available in the HESI A2 Reading Comprehension test.

Fact is immutable, while opinion is entirely subjective. Facts are derived from tangible evidence (using sight, taste, touch, etc.) and are frequently regarded as universal truths. Opinions, however, are not presented with evidence but are presented as feelings and interpretations from one individual or a group of individuals.

When trying to determine whether something is a fact or an opinion, seek out supporting details. If something has numerous evidential supporting details, it is likely to be a fact. If something is supported largely with arguments or appeals to emotion, it is likely to be an opinion.

Compare and Contrast

Comparing and contrasting, while similar, are two very different actions. Comparing is the act of taking two or more things and working to identify similarities between those things. If you were to compare a cat and a dog, for instance, you might note that both are domesticated animals, both possess coats of fur, and both possess tails. Contrasting involves looking at two or more items and working to identify their differences. Again using a cat and a dog, you might note differences in temperaments, in size, and in the basic structure of ears. Comparing is finding similarities while contrasting is identifying differences.

There are certain words that can help clue you in as to whether an author is trying to compare or contrast. Words such as “and,” “also,” and “too” indicate comparison, whereas words such as “but,” “however,” “although,” and “nevertheless” indicate the difference.

Context Clues

Context clue is a term used to describe portions of a passage that lend insight into an idea or a word. Using context clues to find the meaning of a word involves looking at the sentences and phrases surrounding the word in question, and determining what meaning best fits the word based on what is being said in the passage. Using context clues to determine the meaning of an idea is similar; search the sentences and phrases surrounding the idea, and use those excerpts to determine the meaning or purpose of an idea.

Summarizing

Summaries usually come at the end of paragraphs and in the conclusion of pieces. A summary is used to concisely describe the overall purpose and message of a piece. The most common iteration of summaries can be found on the back of a film case; the movie is summarized to draw interest in the story and give an idea of what the story is about.

In literature and academia, the purpose of a summary is no different. Summaries are short passages used to give an idea of a work’s content and draw the interest of the audience.

Tips and tricks

HESI A2 Reading Comprehension

Eliminate the words or phrases.

A complaint which I hear often is that the students are unable to understand the given reading comprehension.  If you belong to this category, you need to understand that you don’t need to understand each and every word of the comprehension. At the same time, you should find the gist (summary) of it. Both these points above may appear contradictory But the crucial thing is, you need to eliminate the words, phrases, and sentences from the Reading Comprehension that are not useful and need to focus on keywords.

Learn about all the tips to help you pass other sections at How to pass the HESI A2 Exam?

Find your strengths first.

To improve reading comprehension, first, you need to find your strengths first. The conservative approach to solving a passage is, to read the passage first, and then go to the questions and solve them. But some students do not feel comfortable with this method. Probably they do not know which keywords to remember while going through the comprehension. Or, they may have to read the comprehension again, after reading the questions. This led to the problem of Time Management.

Solution: You can choose the “bottom-up” approach. That means, read the questions first, so that you have an idea of what to look for, in the comprehension. But ultimately you are the better judge of which approach is the best. So, practice several reading comprehensions in two different approaches and find out which method suits you.

Improve Your Vocabulary:

Vocabulary means knowledge of words (meaning of words). If you do not have a good vocabulary, you have to stop at every new word in the reading comprehension, and be puzzled about what does it mean? 

How to improve your vocabulary? Start reading in English, anything such as newspapers, stories, comics, textbooks…, anything that keeps you immersed in English. New words gradually sink into your subconscious mind and become familiar. Keep a notebook, Note down the new words you learned today and revise them periodically. And Keep a target and a schedule to learn a certain number of new words every day. 

Reading Comprehension Test Materials and Resource

Where you can find Hesi A2 Materials and Test Resource? We highly recommend that you use our online app or website with complete guidance and HESI A2 Reading Comprehension Practice Test with explanations, and short assessments to measure your understanding. It can help you prepare for exam day by giving you a strong math foundation. 

How To Become An EMT In 2022? | The Comprehensive Guide

This article will guide you on how to become an EMT, including what it takes, where you can get started and the EMT practice test resource! Follow it now!

January 1, 2022

EMTs are the frontline of emergency medical services. They respond to emergencies, provide life-saving interventions, and transport the sick or injured from one location to another. It takes a lot of training and hard work to become an EMT but it is very rewarding once you succeed! This blog will guide you on how to become an EMT, including what it takes, where you can get started and the free EMT practice test resource!

How to become an EMT

Different types of EMTs

There are several different types of EMTs that you can choose to become. The three most common and widely used are EMT-B (Emergency Medical Technician), EMT-A (Advanced Emergency Medical Technician), and EMT-Paramedic (commonly referred to as Paramedic). Here is a brief summary of each one!

EMT-B

The standard certification level is EMT-B. Therefore, it involves fewer training hours and responsibilities than those with more advanced training. EMT-Basic performs a variety of duties such as: assessing a patient’s condition, performing basic life support (BLS), reading electrocardiograms (EKGs), and more.

EMT-A

EMT-A is a higher level that requires at least one year of additional training beyond the minimum requirements for an EMT-B certificate. The tasks EMT-A needs to perform are the same as EMT-B plus performing advanced airway management and intravenous therapy.

EMT-Paramedics

This is also at a higher level than EMT-A, which will require two years of training beyond the minimum requirements for an EMT-A certificate. They provide additional care such as administering medications orally or through injections to patients

The most advanced level of certification for an emergency medical technician is EMT-Paramedic. In order to receive this certificate, it requires at least two years of additional training not including EMT-B certification requirements. The duties performed by paramedics are the same as an EMT-A plus the ability to provide advanced medical care. This includes IV therapy, administering medications orally and by injection, and performing psychomotor skills including emergency childbirth deliveries and CPR for adults (including on pediatric patients).

Maybe you care about the average salary of an EMT.

How to become an EMT?

How to become an EMT

Complete EMT Basic Training

It is a must for any Emergency Medical Technician to obtain CPR certification. The American Heart Association and the American Red Cross regularly offer the CPR certification course which is available through many communities and organizations. Both EMTs and Paramedics have to complete a postsecondary emergency medical technology program lasting 1-2 years. They are taught how to assess, care for, and transport patients after finishing that course at a community college, technical college, or university.

Aspiring paramedics then pursue a two-year associate degree in emergency medical services. These programs prepare learners to administer medications, insert IVs, and resuscitate patients.

Register, Schedule & Pass the National Registry Exam

Then, you will need to pass the National Registry Exam. This test is offered in both written and practical formats, with a passing score of 75% or higher on each exam section being required for EMT certification eligibility. The current version of the registry exam has two sections:

Cognitive Section

The cognitive exam includes questions about patient assessment skills, medications and treatments, patient care skills, medical terminology, and anatomy.

Exam Type: Computer Adaptive
Questions: 70-120
Time Limit: 2 hours

Cognitive Exam Fee: $98 (Per exam attempt)
Renewal Fee: $20
Late Fee: $50 + Renewal Fee

Practical Section

Practical Section – includes a written exam on the Basic Skills Protocols to demonstrate that you can perform all of the tasks in this section successfully.

For more detailed information, check the Candidate book on the NREMT website.

Complete the Live Scan fingerprinting background check

You must complete a BCIA 8016, REQUEST FOR LIVE SCAN SERVICE form and take it to a live scan operator. They will then take a full set of your fingerprints which must be submitted to BCIA.

Necessary documents

Take all necessary documents and apply for certification at an EMS agency.

Before you apply for certification at an EMS agency, you must pass the NREMT exam and complete your Live Scan background check. Once you take your NREMT card, your completion certificate from the EMT course, and your CPR card, bring them to the local EMS agency and make an application for certification.

Complete Advanced EMT Training (Optional)

You can complete an advanced EMT course on your own time, and take the Advanced EMT exam from the NREMT through BCIA to become eligible for higher-level positions. It takes about 150 to 200 hours of fieldwork to complete an Advanced training course. Internship rotations in an emergency room and an emergency services agency are required by many courses.

Complete a Two-Year Degree Program (Optional)

EMTs are often eligible for a two-year degree program provided by community colleges or vocational training schools. These programs typically take between 18 and 24 months to complete, but they will provide you with the opportunity to earn more income while working as an EMT.

FAQs – Emergency Medical Technician Exam

What are the EMT Basic requirements?

To obtain an EMT-B, there are certain requirements that you must meet. You need to be at least 18 years old and pass a criminal background check. In addition, applicants must have a high school diploma or equivalent and receive formal training from an approved paramedic program. They must complete a state-approved EMT-B or I/85 course within the last 2 years. Successfully complete a psychomotor exam and pass the NREMT cognitive exam. Also, a current Healthcare Provider BLS certification is required.

Maybe you also want to know the NREMT Skills Sheets, you can get more information with our blog.

How long does it take to become an EMT?

Most candidates need six months to two years to complete the training courses and pass the NREMT exam. However, the length of time needed varies depending on the individual’s experience with related work and his/her desire.

What other jobs can I do as a paramedic/EMT?

They can work in a variety of fields, including emergency medicine and private ambulance companies. For example, EMTs and paramedics can explore careers as police officers and firefighters. Hospitals also hire them as emergency-room technicians.

If you care about which job you can do with EMT, you can try to visit our blog.

How to become an EMT after high school?

To get your Emergency Medical Technician certification, you must be at least 18 years old. As soon as you finish high school or receive your GED, you can apply for a certification program. You can take just the certification class at a local college or enroll for an Emergency Medical Services Associate in Science degree offered by many colleges.

To sum up, when people think about careers in emergency medicine, one of the first things that probably comes to mind is becoming a paramedic or Emergency Medical Technician. What does this job entail? How do I get it? This article has covered the basics of what it takes to become an EMT.

Read more: EMT vs Paramedic: What Is The Difference?

Hoping that this definitive guide can help you take the next step in your career. Now it’s time to practice to get ready for your coming EMT exam. Take it now!

The Comprehensive HESI A2 Grammar Study Guide In 2022

The Hesi A2 Grammar Study Guide is designed to help you prepare for the Grammar Section of the HESI A2 exam. Follow this article to know more now!

January 1, 2022

The Hesi A2 Grammar Study Guide is designed to help you prepare for the Grammar Section of the HESI A2 exam. This study guide covers all of the concepts that may be tested on this exam. It also provides tips for how to pass the Grammar Test as well as a free HESI A2 practice test 2022 source for you. We hope that this blog post helps prepare you for success!

hesi a2 grammar practice test

HESI A2 Grammar Test

Grammar is the final test in the English and language arts portion of the HESI. Being skilled in reading and understanding written passages is very important to success in nursing school, and so is having a large and wide-ranging vocabulary. However, these aren’t enough by themselves. It’s also very important to have a strong grasp of grammar, which is basically the set of rules that govern how to use a language. Of course, there are a lot of different rules that govern how to use English, and many of them are very complicated.

Like the other two exams, it also has 55 questions (five of which don’t count). The recommended time limit for Grammar is 50 minutes, but you’ll want to check with your school to find out the actual time limit you’ll be up against. Many people who have taken all of the sections report that they found the Grammar test to be the most difficult of the three exams in the English portion of the HESI. You can use our free HESI A2 Grammar Practice Test to familiarize yourself with the test format.

What’s On the HESI A2 Grammar Test?   

Parts of Speech

Remember all the lessons about nouns and verbs? Well, those could come in really handy right about now! Be sure to familiarize yourself with the eight parts of speech: noun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection. It may also be helpful to know what these mean: pronoun-antecedent, subject, and predicate.

For example, you know a verb is an action or being word. Well, a predicate is just the verb, plus the other words that go with the verb.

Look at this sentence:

Harry wrote the letter neatly.

Wrote is the verb and wrote the letter neatly is the predicate.

Verb Forms and Tenses

This is an important concept you should pay attention to while studying for the HESI A2 Grammar Test.

Besides knowing what part of speech verbs are, you must know what form and tense of a verb to use in different situations. For instance, do you use ring, rang, or rung, when talking about a bell? The rule for this is: ring is what a bell does in the present tense, rang is in the past, and rung is in the past perfect and must use has, had, or have. Other words like this include swim and bring (there is no such word as brang). Candidates may make some very common errors with these words: see, saw, seen.

You can say, “I saw,” but not “I seen.” You have to use have or had with seen. The same goes for ride, rode, and have/has/had ridden. But never use have, had, or has with saw or rode. Yeah, isn’t the English language great?

Pronoun Use

Unless you are about 2 years old, you know that the sentence “Her went to the store” does not sound right. But what about this? Which one is correct?

– Jamie called Butch and I to dinner.

– Jamie called Butch and me to dinner.

Believe it or not, it’s the second one. The word me is used for objects and I is used for subjects in a sentence. An easier way to determine me versus I is to take the other person out of the sentence and see which sounds right. “Jamie called I to dinner” just doesn’t cut it. It would be “Jamie and I went to dinner” because “Me went to dinner” is just wrong.

Also, practice the use of him and her, as well as when to use himself or herself, instead. Oh, and there is also no such word as “theirselves.”

Capitalization

If you’ve read things on social media lately, you know that some people can go a little crazy with capital letters. Some people use them all the time and some, not at all. For this test, you’ll need to prove you know the rules.

Basically, all sentences and proper nouns (the name of a person, place, or thing) begin with a capital letter. So do titles of people (Mr., Dr., etc.) and a few other word types. You can find a number of lists of capitalization rules online to help you nail this skill.

There are some tricky things to capitalization, too. For example, look at the word dad in these sentences. Both are correct.

– My dad is my best friend.

– I told Dad to come with us.

Why the difference? In the second sentence, Dad is used as a name. In the first, it is not. Saying, “my dad” is the same as saying, “my ball, my dog, my pencil,” none of which need capital letters.

Punctuation

Punctuation basics are easy, right? A period at the end of a sentence, question mark after a question, etc. But there are some confusing points, too. Here are a few rules to remember:

Commas used in a series of words typically include one before the word and in academic writing: I had apples, peaches, and pears for lunch. This is the serial comma, or also known as the Oxford comma. It is a matter of style preference, so remember to check the preferred style guide of the institution, or school, for whom you are writing, or read test instructions, and practice consistency.)

An apostrophe used to show possession is always directly after the person/s or animal/s that actually possess/es the thing: If the bone belongs to one dog, it is “the dog’s bone,” but if it belongs to two or more dogs, it is “the dogs’ bone.”

Looking up other apostrophe rules would be a good idea. There are many.

Apostrophes are not used just to form a plural! “I love my baby’s” is just not right. It should be babies.

Quotation marks: Generally, all other forms of punctuation are written inside the quotes. Jean said, “I am the oldest person here.” And “Hi!” said Tom.

Review where to use a hyphen (-).

Read more >> The Comprehensive HESI A2 Vocabulary Study Guide

Confusing Words

The English language has many confusing words. The Grammar section of the HESI exam will test your knowledge of a few of them. To prepare for this section of the test, take note of the following reminders:

Know the differences among your/you’re, there/their/they’re, and its/it’s. You should be able to split any two words that are joined with an apostrophe into those two words and have the sentence still make sense.

Example: “I saw you’re house” may sound right, but if you split you’re into two words, it becomes “I saw you are house,” which is not right. By the same token, “Your my best friend” is not right, either. This time, it is supposed to have the equivalent of you are in it, so “You’re my best friend” works.

Other tricky words to study include: accept/except, effect/affect, and advice/advise. Example: He gives advice. But, He did not advise her.

Know when to use lay and lie, less and fewer, harder and hardest, etc. Trick: Use -er ending when comparing two things and -est for three or more.

It should be “I could have danced all night,” not “I could of danced all night.”

Its is the only possessive that doesn’t have an apostrophe. It’s, with the apostrophe, means it is.

Sentence Structure

Some of the questions will ask you to decide which form of a sentence is correct. What this means is, “Which form makes the meaning most clear to you, the reader?” This may involve punctuation or word usage. There may be two answers that are actually correct, but only one of them is best.

For example, Jane was just thinking of John, not Tim, when she ran into him. (It is not clear who she ran into.)

This is better: Jane had been thinking of John when she ran into Tim.

Other Items

It would probably be a good idea to know what each of the following items means and to be able to tell if a sentence has them and where they are in the sentence:

– dependent clause

– independent clause

– weak clause

– active verb tense

Word Pairs and Common Mistakes

Some of the questions in the grammar subsection of the test will be related to clauses, word pairing, and common grammatical mistakes. For example:

Read the following sentences and determine which sentence includes only an independent clause and which includes a dependent clause

  1. Jim went walking in the park
  2. Jim went walking because he needs to lose weight

The first sentence contains only an independent clause. Jim is the subject and went walking is the verb. This statement can stand on its own. The second sentence contains a dependent clause: because he needs to lose weight. This clause cannot stand on its own and needs the independent clause, Jim went walking.

Read the following sentences and identify the correct missing words

  1. Dostoyevsky is the man___ wrote Crime and Punishment
  2. I asked to ___ the package had been delivered

Word pairs are words that have similar meanings and uses and can be easily confused. In the first question, the answer is who. Sometimes, people will use that instead of who, but who should be used when discussing a person. The second answer is whom, which is only used in the objective case (when the pronoun is the object and not the subject), rather than in the nominative case (referring to the subject).

Read the following sentences and determine which sentence is a run-on

  1. John and I took a trip to Paris it was a really good experience.
  2. Betsy and Phil went to Italy, and they had a lot of fun.

The first sentence is a run-on sentence. It should read: John and I took a trip to Paris. It was a really good experience. Or, alternatively: John and I took a trip to Paris, and it was a really good experience. The sample sentence contains two clauses that run together. It is missing punctuation, or punctuation, and a transition word.

Read more >> HESI A2 Reading Comprehension Study Guide

Tips to study for the Grammar section

There are some tips you should know and remember when studying and taking the test:

  • Know which punctuation to use, and when.  
  • Study the English usage of pronouns.  
  • Learn how to correctly use possessives.
  • Review subject-verb agreement thoroughly so that you are confident in your answers.
  • You will meet many questions in these three areas: sentence structure, word choice, and punctuation.   
  • Make sure to study the Apostrophe section as it’s a common mistake in college-level English courses.  
  • When you see an abbreviation, make sure that you know what dates are abbreviated.
  • Review the Comma rules for Quotations and lists of items.
  • Remember that there are two sets of homophones and they’re often confused.

A great way to study Grammar is to read a lot, so practice reading the newspaper as if you were going back in time – without an Internet connection!   

Hesi A2 Grammar Practice Test Resource

Where you can find the HESI A2 practice test resource? We highly recommend that you use our HESI exam training website with a complete HESI A2 study guide and practice tests with explanations, and short assessments to measure your understanding. It can help you prepare for exam day by giving you a strong grammar foundation. 

Thousand of HESI A2 practice questions and various full practice test will help you boost your knowledge and get 100% familiar with the test format. Take it now!

What Is The Average EMT Salary In Every State [2022 Updated]

In this article, we will provide beneficial information about how much an EMT makes and the average EMT salary by State. Follow this article to know more now!

January 1, 2022

EMTs play a vital role in the healthcare industry. When it comes to emergency medical situations, they are the first responders to help save people’s lives. Although EMTs might not make as much as a paramedic, the demand for them is always high. In this blog, we will answer all your questions about how much an EMT makes and the average EMT salary by State.

average emt salary by state

What does an EMT do?

Emergency Medical Technicians, also known as EMTs, are the first responders at the scene of an emergency such as serious accidents or injuries. Hospitals, fire departments, police departments, or private ambulance services are some places where EMTs probably work.

There, they are in charge of assessing and treating patients in emergencies so that patients’ conditions can be stabilized long enough while they are being given to the hospital. Maintaining a patient’s airway, addressing bleeding, and preventing shock are several vital treatments EMTs can take care of on the spot.

To get more information about the job you can do with EMTs, you can try to visit our blog.

Do Paramedics make more than an EMT?

EMTs’ main duties are assessing and stabilizing patients’ conditions by providing them with some basic life-saving treatments. On the other hand, paramedics who are licensed medical providers have the right to apply more advanced life-saving measures such as using a defibrillator, administering drugs, inserting an IV line, and intubating a patient.

To become paramedics, students must study both basic and advanced EMT studies. They also have to finish the supplementary courses and on-job training as well. It means that Paramedics require higher education and more experience, so they can earn more than EMTs.

Read more: The difference between an EMT and a Paramedic

How much does an EMT make?

While paramedics can earn $40,000 as the annual average salary, EMTs earn between $33,000 to $50,000 per year on average. However, EMT salary can be affected by many other factors including the state of the employment and the company a person works for.

How much does an EMT Basic make in an hour?

According to Salary.com, the average annual salaries of EMTs are between $32,860 and $40,760 nationwide. Therefore, they can earn an average of $16 to $20 per hour.

Where do EMTs get paid the most?

how much an EMT makes

Like other careers, EMTs get paid the most in areas with high demand for their services. However, before seeking a job with a high-paid salary at a new place, you should also consider the course of living there, such as the costs of housing, travel, food, and other commodities. When considering these things, you may realize that the high wages offered to tend to be lower ones.

Zip recruiter’s report, which is confirmed by the Bureau of Labour Statistics, showed that New York is the place where EMTs get the highest-paid. The average salary of an EMT there is $15.78 per hour, so they can earn the average salary of $32,823.

Average EMT salary by state

Below are average estimates of wages as reported by Zip Recruiter, ranked from highest to lowest.

No.StateThe lowest salaryThe highest salaryThe average salary 
Per hourAnnually
1New York$24,622$42,678$15.78$32,823
2Massachusetts$24,419$42,326$15.52$32,286
3Washington$22,398$38,822$15.52$32,286
4New Hampshire$23,958$41,427$15.21$31,643
5Hawaii$22,549$39,085$15.01$31,226
6Maryland$22,780$39,484$14.49$30,131
7Connecticut$22,431$38,880$14.48$30,122
8Rhode Island$21,656$37,537$14.36$28,877
9Alaska$22,500$39,000$14.35$29,838
10Vermont$22,532$39,055$14.29$29,715
11Nebraska$22,562$39,107$14.27$29,677
12Nevada$22,500$39,000$14.23$29,677
13North Dakota$22,500$39,000$14.18$29,492
14Wyoming$22,500$39,000$14.17$29,467
15California$22,466$38,942$14.14$29,419
16Virginia$22,029$38,182$14.08$29,288
17Kentucky$20,910$36,243$13.80$28,699
18South Dakota$21,223$36,787$13.76$28,631
19New Jersey$21,521$37,303$13.74$28,569
20West Virginia$21,770$37,735$13.72$28,534
21Pennsylvania$21,328$36,968$13.65$28,396
22South Carolina$21,220$36,781$13.58$28,249
23Minnesota$21,146$36,653$13.57$28,223
24Oregon$21,214$36,771$13.54$28,155
25Delaware$21,251$36,835$13.53$28,151
26Colorado$21,383$37,065$13.52$28,114
27Tennessee$21,166$36,687$13.52$28,1114
28Montana$22,500$39,000$13.51$28,093
29Ohio$20,914$36,251$13.43$27,929
30Wisconsin$20,509$35,549$13.40$27,862
31Arizona$21,222$36,785$13.37$27,804
32Kansas$20,695$35,871$13.31$27,684
33Utah$21,077$36,534$13.30$27,672
34Indiana$20,840$36,122$13.28$27,626
35Oklahoma$20,781$36,022$13.26$27,582
36Idaho$22,500$39,000$13.22$27,504
37Maine$20,468$35,477$13.21$27,483
38Louisiana$20,678$35,843$13.16$27,372
39Iowa$20,616$35,734$13.02$27,090
40Georgia$20,107$34,851$12.90$26,822
41Texas$20,231$35,068$12.75$26,514
42Arkansas$20,216$35,041$12.68$26,370
43Alabama$20,132$34,895$12.59$26,195
44New Mexico$19,900$34,492$12.72$26,457
45Michigan$19,719$34,181$12.69$26,390
46Illinois$19,712$34,168$12.61$26,227
47Mississippi$19,826$34,366$12.47$25,930
48Missouri$19,445$33,705$12.44$25,869
49Florida$18,972$32,883$12.15$25,281
50North Carolina$17,455$30,256$11.57$25,072

It’s a well-known fact that EMT jobs are not as lucrative as they might seem. There are a few reasons why the EMT salary is so low.
Firstly, becoming an EMT is widely known as the first and fundamental step to getting to a better job or a better life. Therefore, a lot of people take an EMT course and exam first, but not all of them work as EMTs for their whole life, many EMTs then access higher education to become licensed paramedics or doctors and other higher-paid medical professionals.

Why is EMT pay so low?

Another reason why EMTs are paid so low is they are often seen as a public service. They can work for government-funded positions that do not always pay well, or they can work privately and get paid less than their counterparts in other medical fields.

Last but not least, in some rural areas, volunteers are often in charge of EMTs’ roles. This means that it will be harder for EMTs to earn a wage because there are so many people who are ready to do this job for free.

Are EMTs in demand?

Like all medical professions, the demand for emergency medical services is often stable. It is expected to grow 7 percent between 2018 and 2028. This increasing speed is higher than all other occupations. As a result, finding work as an EMT is easy, and this job would be secured.

In conclusion, it is not hard to become an EMT. The necessary training can be done in a short amount of time, and those who go through this process are likely to find work quickly. To help you achieve your EMT career, we have designed the EMT practice test website to help you improve your understanding of all EMT knowledge areas.

Thousands of free EMT-B practice questions and EMT full tests are available for you. Take it now!

EMT vs Paramedic: What Is The Difference?

This article is going to indicate the difference between EMT vs Paramedic, what these careers entail and how they differ from one another. Follow this now!

January 1, 2022

If you are interested in a career where you will be saving lives, then becoming an EMT or paramedic might be the perfect choice for you. This blog post is going to introduce what these careers entail and how they differ from one another. We will also talk about certification requirements so that you can start your journey into this rewarding profession.

The amount of education and the level of care for patients are the two biggest differences between EMTs and Paramedics. A paramedic usually has more training and is able to provide a higher level of care for patients, while an EMT cannot.

What are they?

EMTs are also known as Emergency Medical Technicians, they are the person who will be providing pre-hospital care and who are typically the first person on the scene.

Paramedics, also known as Emergency Medical Technicians with Advanced Life Support training, have more advanced skills than an EMT, such as suturing wounds and administering IV drugs. They can provide both basic and advanced life support services for patients in emergency situations.

Where do they work?

Some places where EMTs can often work are ambulance services, governments, hospitals, fire departments, and hospital departments. In these places, a medical director or physician supervises their work and they have a limited scope of practice.

On the other hand, Paramedics most commonly are employed by emergency medical services (EMS). There, they can work with EMTs, but the number of Paramedics is often larger than EMTs. Besides, Paramedics can also work for air ambulances and fire services.

Maybe you care about the salary of an EMT.

emt vs paramedic

The difference in typical responsibilities between EMT vs Paramedic

As the first responders to an emergency situation, EMTs have some duties such as responding to 911 calls for emergency medical technicians, assessing patients, helping them stabilize, and treating them on the way to hospitals or between facilities. Some of the treatments they can do within their scope of practice are using a backboard and restrains to keep the patients still and safe in the ambulance during transport, providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), bandaging wounds, and controlling external bleeding, preventing shock and further injury in patients. They also must maintain patient records, and inform the hospital about the injury or illness, the number of patients being transported, and the expected time of arrival.

In addition to some EMTs’ basic duties, Paramedics can take more advanced practices. For instance, they might provide additional treatment to the patient during transport, such as intravenous (IV) medications or fluid replacement. They can also use more advanced equipment in order to treat patients who have been injured severely enough that they need surgery and are transported by helicopter.

Education and experience requirements

If you want to become an EMT, having a high school diploma or GED is sufficient. You do not need an associate’s or bachelor’s degree. However, completing an EMT training program that is offered by community colleges and vocational schools is a must. Such programs often are completed in 150 hours. In addition, to become a successful EMT, students must also pass the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) cognitive exam.

The highest level of EMTs is Paramedics which is why becoming a Paramedic requires more education than becoming an EMT. Students must finish basic and advanced EMT training courses and additional studies. Generally, they also have to work as EMTs for one to two years to gain experience. Students must also take EMT courses at a college or university. These programs typically last between two and four years. That depends on the school’s curriculum, which ranges from 100 to 200-course hours. Paramedics are required to be certified by the National Board for Certification of Emergency Medical Technicians (NBCET).

You can get more about NREMT Skills Sheets in our blog.

Certification and license

Obtaining CPR certification is a must for anyone who wants to become an EMT because only a person who possesses CPR certification can enroll in an EMT training program. Many organizations provide students with that certification such as the American Red Cross and the American Heart Association. Another certification students must take to become an EMT is the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) certification. NREMT certification is the guarantee of a student’s competence and almost every state requires it for becoming a licensed emergency medical technician. The EMT must be at least 18 years old and should have a valid driver’s license to receive an NREMT license.

In order to become a Paramedic, you are required to obtain all the licenses as an EMT. In addition, Paramedics must pass the NBCET Exam and also be licensed by their state. The National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) administers this exam which is a two-part assessment that consists of an essay test and a computerized practical examination where students are required to perform skills such as cardiac monitoring, and intravenous fluid administration, and airway management.

How do you become an EMT?

Steps for Becoming an EMT:

  • 18 years old or older with a valid driver’s license.
  • Complete your basic educational requirements – a high school diploma or GED.
  • Gain CPR certification from the American Red Cross or the American Heart Association.
  • Take the NREMT exam and get your certification once you pass it.
  • You can take boot camp to become certified but this is not mandatory in most states. This usually takes about three weeks).

To get more information about the way to become an EMT, you can try to visit our blog.

How do you become a paramedic?

You have to meet the following requirements:

  • 18 years old or older with a valid driver’s license.
  • Complete your basic educational requirements – a high school diploma or GED.
  • Gain CPR certification from the American Red Cross or the American Heart Association if you want to work as an EMT and not be limited to just paramedics (this usually takes about three weeks).
  • Take the NREMT exam and get your certification once you pass it.
  • Get a job as an EMT for at least two years. This will give you more experience in emergency medical situations.
  • Complete paramedic school (this usually takes about six months).

If you want to know detailed information about the way to become a paramedic, you can try to visit our blog.

In conclusion, the difference between an EMT and a paramedic is that the latter has more training than the former. An EMT provides basic life support (BLS). While paramedics provide BLS plus advanced cardiac care which includes administering medications to patients as well as performing endotracheal intubation (EIT ).

If you are going to take the EMT-B exam, we suggest that our free EMT practice test will be an optimum option for you. Thousands of free EMT practice questions and our unique gamified learning technique will help you get 100% ready for your coming exam. Take it now!

The Comprehensive HESI Biology Study Guide In 2022

Are you gearing up to take the hesi biology test? We'll go into detail about what the Biology exam entails and some tips to study for it.

January 1, 2022

Are you gearing up to take the HESI A2 Biology test? If so, then this blog post is for you! We’ll go into detail about what the exam entails, how to study for it, and what some helpful tips are.

HESI A2 Biology Review

There are 30 questions on the exam and we recommend that the time limit for the Biology test is 25 minutes. Most schools will, but there is a possibility that your school may establish a different time limit, so before exam day, be sure to check it. All information that you need is on the nursing school’s website.

What’s on the HESI A2 Biology Test?

hesi biology

To do well on the Biology section of the HESI exam, There are some main concepts that need to know:

Classification of Organisms

Living things are classified by a system developed by Carl Linnaeus. Organisms are often named by the binomial system of genus and species. 

The classification of species allows the subdivision of living organisms into smaller and more specialized groups.

Kingdoms

The first division of living things in the classification system is to put them into one of five kingdoms. They are: 

  • animals (all multicellular animals)
  • plants (all green plants)
  • fungi (molds, mushrooms, yeast)
  • protists (Amoeba, Chlorella, and Plasmodium)
  • prokaryotes (bacteria, blue-green algae)

Further divisions

We can rank the living things according to:

  • phylum
  • class
  • order
  • family
  • genus
  • species

The kingdom is broken into Phylum that has many different organisms. For examples:

  • Chordata, which have backbones
  • Arthropod, which has jointed legs and an exoskeleton
  • Annelids, which are segmented worms

The class follows Phylum. For example, class results in the Chordata phylum being divided into:

  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Fish
  • Reptiles

The order follows class and as an example, mammals can be further subdivided into a variety of different groups such as:

  • Carnivores
  • Primates

The Family follows the order. Here are some examples of which carnivores can be split into:

  • Canidae – dogs
  • Felidae – cats

Genus, the Felidae family can be further divided into 4 genus examples:

  • Acinonyx – cheetah
  • Panthera – lion and tiger
  • Neofelis – clouded leopard
  • Felis – domestic cats

Species is the final classification stage. The genus Panthera includes:

  • Panthera leo (lion)
  • Panthera tigris (tiger)

As an example, the complete breakdown of the classification of lions:

  • kingdom – animal
  • phylum – vertebrate
  • class – mammal
  • order – carnivorous
  • family – cat
  • genus – big cat
  • species – lion

Read more >> HESI Critical Thinking Exam: What You Need To Know

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method is a method of devising and performing experiments that yield meaningful results. It includes a procedural approach to collecting information about the physical world that starts with a formulated question and ends with the rejection of a hypothesis and the reevaluation of the experiment.

We can summarize The Scientific Method as the following:

Question – A curiosity about a phenomenon increases and, in response, a question is formulated. Early thinkers looked at the sky and wondered why it was blue or looked at the grass and wondered why it was green.

Research – After formulating a question, a scientist looks for any relevant research or data already discovered and provided for the phenomenon in question. This is useful in giving some direction in how to build or approach the question.

Hypothesis – The scientist then created a hypothesis, or an educated guess, as to what could be causing the phenomenon. This step is useful in narrowing down the possible options or experimentation.

Experiment – Using available measuring tools and technology, to provide valuable data for the scientist to investigate, an experiment is designed.

Evaluation – The data will then be analyzed and assessed for its validity. Do the observations made support the hypothesis, or do they support a different hypothesis?

Conclusion – In the end, the scientist will determine if the hypothesis is confirmed, in which case other scientists will then recreate the same experiment to identify that the results hold true at a different time or place not using the different methods. The scientist may select to change some of the experimental methods or devise a new hypothesis if the hypothesis is not confirmed.

In summary, the Scientific Method provides a methodical method for investigating experiments, data, and drawing conclusions. It is worthwhile to see that developments in scientific research do not increase from haphazard guessing and checking, but rather through logical design and reasoning. Even a basic familiarity with the method will prove useful while making sense of scientific experiments.

Cells, Tissues, and Organs

The most fundamental unit of life is the cell. Organisms that exist as a single cell, like bacterium, are called prokaryotes and those that are multicellular, like humans, are called eukaryotes. The main difference between these two groups is that eukaryotes possess a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles while prokaryotes do not.

Starting with the knowledge of the cell, its form, and function, we can begin to make sense of how life operates, and what cellular features enable this operation. Learning the components of the cell is not a difficult task, but it can be tedious.

One great way to learn about cells is to complement lists of cellular components/features with drawings of cells – this is particularly useful for eukaryotic cells and their organelles. Accompany these drawings with the name of the cell “part” and what its function or purpose is. For instance, the nucleus houses genetic information and instructions for cellular operations; the mitochondrion helps generate ATP to provide energy for the cell… In studying the differences between plant, animal, and bacterial cells, a mini whiteboard can be a huge asset. Repeatedly diagramming the elements of the various cell types and their parts (noting similarities and differences) will cause long-term retention.

When a group of cells functions together to accomplish tasks, they are operating as tissue. Due to the differences at the cellular level, plants and animals organize into different types of tissue. Plants possess meristematic tissues, which enable them to increase in size, and permanent tissues, which enable them to maintain their form.

Animals possess connective, epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissues. As the tissues in plants, these groups serve different functions and have different forms. Connective tissues provide structure to organisms. Epithelial tissues are those found where cells line and cover organs. Muscle tissue allows animals to move, and nervous tissue enables animals to send and receive signals to its different parts.

Just as cells combine to form tissues, tissues combine to form organs. Humans possess an extensive list of organs that all serve a particular function: some help digest food to provide energy, while others help circulate air and blood. And, like tissues, organs act collaboratively to form organ systems.

The same approach of studying the cells and their functions can be applied to tissues, organs, and then organ systems. It is most important to generate your own diagrams when learning the form and function of these different systems. It is easy to believe that one has a solid grasp of these things when reading from a book or even a page of notes; however, this is much different from being able to work from the ground up in describing the composition of organisms. Condense lists of organismal features into its basic parts, and work through repeatedly processing this information with the aid of a whiteboard and note cards.

Genetics and Heredity

Heredity is the passing on of genetic traits from one generation to the next; it is the reason that children resemble parents, and why humans give birth to other humans. Genetics is the study of the principles underlying heredity.

Workable knowledge of genetics is impossible without becoming familiar with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). This familiarity entails its composition [knowing that guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine (also known as GCAT) are its nucleotides, knowing how they pair, and knowing that its strands run antiparallel, among other features], as well as its function (to house and maintain the instructions for a cell’s operations).

An understanding of “the central dogma” of molecular biology, which states that genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to proteins, can serve as a great outline for how gene transfer takes place. Before moving on to transcription and translation, understanding can help you be familiar with DNA replication, the details of which can be processed through learning the names and functions of the various structures and enzymes involved. Because this is a systematic procedure that incorporates many different parts, drawing and redrawing diagrams can prove worthwhile for the long-term retention of the operations.

When these operations are understood, a more general understanding of genetics can be studied. A familiarity with Gregor Mendel and his laws (Law of Dominance, Law of Segregation, and the Law of Independent Assortment) can act as a solid foundation for genetic transfer beyond the microscopic scale. This will lead one to learn about parents, first and second generations, and the expression of phenotypes as predicted with Punnett squares.

Much difficulty in studying genetics and heredity stems from the necessity of learning an exhaustive number of terms and definitions. Intelligent utilization of flashcards and diagrams can address these problems.

Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis and meiosis are processes by which cells reproduce. Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction where the resulting cell is genetically identical to the parent cell, whereas meiosis results in a cell that contains only half of the chromosomes found in the parent cell. It is wise to note both the similarities and the differences when reviewing the two processes. Similar to the method used for recalling the various taxonomic classes, a mnemonic device can prove valuable in learning the stages of mitosis and meiosis.

While these two reproduction methods share essentially the same steps, it can be useful to think that because meiosis is involved in sexual reproduction, a method for diversifying life; it is more complicated than mitosis. Recalling this can help you remember which mnemonic goes with which process.

Familiarity with the cell cycle is helpful in understanding these two processes. Cells do not arbitrarily reproduce, nor do they reproduce nonstop. Instead, there are triggers and signals that must be present before a cell will begin reproduction. Mitosis can be broken down into four main stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. But there are two additional “stages” of interphase and cytokinesis. The acronym IPMATC can be useful in recalling the order in which these stages happen.

Meiosis shares the same stages, but it occurs in two ordered sequences, so there is an IPMAT 1 and an IPMAT 2. The best method for retaining the details involved in both processes is to utilize a whiteboard and diagrams, drawing and redrawing the steps until this can be done without the aid of any reference material. It may sound repetitive, but this method of learning is invaluable for gaining functional knowledge of this material.

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants transform the energy in light into chemical energy that can be used to fuel life functions. A solid grasp of photosynthesis entails an understanding of what cellular structures enable the process (think chloroplasts, and other structures present in plant cells that are not in animal cells) as well as how the process happens (without carbon dioxide and water the process cannot take place).

Just as you should be familiar with the chemical equation governing cellular respiration (the energy liberating process in animal cells), you should also understand the chemical equation relating to the reactants and products of photosynthesis. Both of these processes rely upon the transfer of free electrons to generate chemical energy. And, just as animal cells carry out the Krebs cycle to generate ATP, plants carry out the Calvin cycle to generate energy. Analogs like this are very useful to recognize as they can reduce two distinct processes into a single concept and thus simplify the material to be learned.

Familiarity with the different types of photosynthesis is also useful to learn. Some types require the presence of light whereas others can be performed in the absence of light. An understanding of what biological purpose or function this serves can be helpful. Similarly to all of the other systems and processes, the usage of a whiteboard and diagrams, as well as a complementary list of the cellular features necessary, can prove invaluable when reviewing involved procedures such as photosynthesis. However, when you can already generate the information without the aid of reference materials, you can be certain that you have developed a firm comprehension of the concept.

Read more >> The Comprehensive HESI A2 Grammar Study Guide

Helpful tips for the HESI A2 biology test

Make flashcards. You can either make them yourself with the help of friends, classmates, or family members; you could buy pre-made cards from stores like Target and Walmart; or if not, use sites online such as StudyBlue to create your own deck of study cards at no cost. Flashcards serve as a great way to review important concepts.

Take practice quizzes, exams, and tests before the HESI A21 Biology exam date. This allows you to get a feel for what will be on your test so that when it comes time for the actual exam day, you’ll know what to expect. It also helps reduce anxiety as many people are more nervous about recalling information than putting it together.

Use a study planner to help you plan your time during the week and divide up work for each day so that you’re not overwhelmed. You can make this as simple or detailed as you want, but just try to map out when and how much studying will happen on any given day of the week.

Never start studying for the HESI A21 Biology exam without knowing what you’re going to do after. If that means taking a break from study, make sure you establish when and why it’s appropriate to take one before starting your work.

When studying for the exam, it’s important to work on your strengths and weaknesses. If you’re really struggling with a particular subject or concept, take notes in class so that you can spend more time drilling down into what you find difficult later.

Hesi A2 Biology Practice Test Resource

Where can you find Hesi A2 Materials and Test Resources? We highly recommend that you use our HESI practice website with complete guidance and practice tests with explanations, and short assessments to measure your understanding. It can help you prepare for exam day by giving you a strong math foundation. Take our HESI A2 practice test free now!

NREMT Skills Sheets | What You Need To Know In 2022

The NREMT Skills Sheets are a must-have for NREMT candidates to successfully pass the NREM examination. Follow this article to know more about this now!

January 1, 2022

NREMT Skills Sheets are a must-have for NREMT candidates preparing to take the NREMT exam. This NREMT study guide covers all of the NREMT practical skills and knowledge necessary to successfully pass the NREM examination. Besides, you can combine these documents with our free EMT practice test to be completely prepared for your coming big day!

Firstly, you must pass both the cognitive exam and the psychomotor exam to qualify and get your EMS national certification. Because you must present the same information across the board, so remember to contact your course instructor to walk you through the steps of scheduling your exam before taking your practical exam. The National Registry does not administer the psychomotor exam. This exam is administered by your State EMS Office, so it varies between states how and where you will test.

Secondly, you must be acknowledged that you have completed your program and had comprehensive psychomotor knowledge from your program director before you sign up for the exam for advanced levels of the practical exam, AEMT and Paramedic. In addition, you must obtain a PATT letter (Psychomotor Authorization to Test) and remember to maintain your PATT number, and bring a copy of the letter to the exam.

The following PDF documents give a comprehensive checklist of each skill presented, they are taken from the National Registry website. Please remember that “the State EMS Office or training institution may use different forms and the following performance lists are just a guide for the verification of required skills.” You can find out more information on the NREMT website.

EMR Skills Sheets

  1. Patient Assessment/Management – Trauma (Download PDF)
  2. Patient Assessment/Management – Medical (Download PDF)
  3. Oxygen Administration by Non-Rebreather Mask (Download PDF)
  4. Cardiac Arrest Management/AED (Download PDF)
  5. BVM Ventilation of an Apneic Adult Patient (Download PDF)

EMT Skills Sheets

  1. Patient Assessment/Management – Trauma (Download PDF)
  2. Patient Assessment/Management – Medical (Download PDF)
  3. Oxygen Administration by Non-Rebreather Mask (Download PDF)
  4. Spinal Immobilization (Seated Patient) (Download PDF)
  5. BVM Ventilation of an Apneic Adult Patient (Download PDF)
  6. Spinal Immobilization (Supine Patient) (Download PDF)
  7. Cardiac Arrest Management/AED (Download PDF)
  8. Bleeding Control/Shock Management (Download PDF)
  9. Joint Immobilization (Download PDF)
  10. Long Bone Immobilization (Download PDF)

Read more: How To Become An EMT In 2022?

AEMT Skills Sheets

  1. Patient Assessment – Trauma (Download PDF)
  2. Patient Assessment – Medical (Download PDF)
  3. Supraglottic Airway Device (Download PDF)
  4. Pediatric Respiratory Compromise (Download PDF)
  5. Cardiac Arrest Management (Download PDF)
  6. Intravenous Therapy – Bolus (Download PDF)
  7. Pediatric Intraosseous Infusion (Download PDF)
  8. Spinal Immobilization – Supine (Download PDF)
  9. Spinal Immobilization Seated Patient (Download PDF)
  10. Long Bone Immobilization (Download PDF)
  11. Joint Immobilization (Download PDF)
  12. Bleeding Control Shock Management (Download PDF)

Paramedic

  1. Patient Assessment – Trauma (Download PDF)
  2. Dynamic Cardiology (Download PDF)
  3. Static Cardiology (Download PDF)
  4. Oral Station (Download PDF)
  5. Oral Stations Template (Download PDF)
  6. Oral Station Sample Scenario (Download PDF)
  7. Integrated Out-of-Hospital Scenario (Download PDF)

Read more: How To Become A Paramedic In 2022?

Hope that these NREMT Skills Sheets help you easily reach your final goals!

The Ultimate Chemistry Study Guide For HESI A2 Exam [2022]

This HESI A2 Chemistry study guide will discuss what the chemistry section covers as well as some helpful tips to pass it. Check it out!

January 1, 2022

Do you want to ace your HESI A2 Chemistry test? Do you need help preparing for the exam? If so, then this Chemistry Study Guide blog post is perfect for you! We will discuss what a HESI A2 Chemistry Test is and what it covers. Then we’ll give you some study tips that will help ensure you succeed on your exam!

After grasping all this study guide, you can review your knowledge with our free HESI A2 practice test 2022 to strengthen your knowledge!

chemistry study guide

What’s on the HESI A2 Chemistry Test?

If you are thinking of applying to a nursing school, the HESI A2 Chemistry test may be coming up in the near future. Many nursing programs require all applicants to take the HESI A2 exam as part of the admissions process. The HESI A2 consists of seven major components, and schools can select which of the seven they want applicants to take. Many schools do not require applicants to take Chemistry, but many do. If you are unsure whether the school to which you are applying requires it, you should check with them.

There are 30 multiple-choice questions about chemistry though only 25 of those questions count toward your score. In most cases, you will have 25 minutes to complete the HESI Chemistry test, but schools can establish their own restrictions, so you should verify the actual allotted time with your school before taking the exam.

HESI A2 Chemistry Study Guide

Units of Measurement

While most measurements in nursing use the metric system, you may need to be able to approximate the US and/or Imperial measurements as a comparison.

Volume

Volume is usually measured in milliliters (ml) or cubic centimeters (cm3).

  • 1 ml = 0.001 liter
  • 1 ml = 1 cm3

For example: 6L = 6000 ml = 6000 cm3

For larger quantities, US gallons are used in the US, and Imperial gallons are used in the UK. Some helpful conversions are:

  • 1 Imperial gallon = ~ 1.2 US gallons
  • 1 US gallon = ~ 3.79 liters or 231 cubic inches
  • 1 Imperial gallon = ~ 4.55 liters or ~ 277.42 cubic inches
  • 1 liter = 2.11 US pints

Mass and Length

Mass is commonly measured in grams (g) or kilograms (kg), where 1 kg = 1000 g.

  • 1 kg = 2.2 pounds
  • 1 pound = 16 ounces
  • 1 stone = 14 pounds

Length is usually measured in meters (m), centimeters (cm), or millimeters (mm).

  • 1 inch = 2.54 cm
  • 1 foot = 30.5 cm
  • 1 yard = 91.44 cm
  • 1 km = 0.621 miles

States of Matter

There are four fundamental states of matter – solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Solids are characterized by closely packed particles, held together by strong intermolecular forces to form a definite shape. Heating a solid to a temperature above its melting point transforms it into a liquid. In liquids, the intermolecular forces are weaker, meaning the particles have more freedom of movement.

By heating a liquid to a temperature higher than its boiling point, it can be turned into a gas. In a gas, the particles have enough kinetic energy to pass through the intermolecular forces and can freely move. Heating a gas to high temperatures can produce plasma. This leads to the electrons in an atom separating from the nuclei and plasma can be thought of as a cloud of free electrons and positively charged ions.

Atoms

Elements are made of atoms, and atoms are made of three types of particles – negatively charged electrons, positively charged protons, and neutral neutrons.

The protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom. The nucleus has a very small diameter compared to the overall size of the atom, but it is where most of the mass is concentrated. The electrons orbit the nucleus in shells and most of the volume of the atom is taken up by the free space between the nucleus and electrons. 

An element’s nuclear symbol tells you how many electrons, protons, and neutrons make up each atom.

element’s nuclear symbol - Hesi chemistry

where,

X is the element symbol.

A is the mass number, which tells you the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

Z is the atomic number, which is the number of protons in the nucleus.

The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons for neutral atoms. The number of neutrons is A – Z. A neutral atom of lithium represented by the nuclear symbol 73Li has three protons, three electrons, and four neutrons, which is the example of the number of protons.

Ions have unequal numbers of protons and electrons. Positive ions have more protons than electrons and negative ions have more electrons than protons.

All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons. Isotopes are atoms of the same element but with different numbers of neutrons. For example, 126C and 136C are both isotopes of carbon.

Acids and Bases

Using the pH scale, we can measure the acidity or basicity of a chemical or solution. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 and a pH of 7 is neutral. A solution with a pH lower than 7 is classed as acidic and a solution with a pH higher than 7 is classed as basic.

Hydrochloric acid (HCl), which is part of the acid that is found in the stomach, is a very strong acid with a pH of 1. Water is neutral, with a pH of 7. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has a pH of 9, making it a weak alkali. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a very strong alkali and when concentrated can have a pH of 14.

The pH scale is logarithmic with a base of 10. This means that each unit difference corresponds to a change of a factor of 10. pH 3 is 10 times more acidic than pH 4 and 1000 times more acidic than pH 6 is the example for the pH scale mentioned in the following.

Chemical Equations

Balanced equations should have the same number of each type of atom on both sides. You have to alter the number of molecules of one or more compounds on either side of the equation to balance equations. Balance the equation:

C2H6+O2 => CO2+2H2O

This is the first step is to work out the number of atoms on each side:

Left Right

C = 2 C = 1

H = 6 H = 4

O = 2 O = 3

The right side needs 1 more ion of C and 2 more ions of H, so we can add 1 more CO2 compound and 1 more H2O compound and the equation becomes:

C2H6+O2 => 2CO2+3H2O

Left Right

C = 2 C = 2

H = 6 H = 6

O = 2 O = 7

Because we have also added more atoms of O to the right, we now need five more atoms of O on the left to make 7 atoms in total. Add another 2.5 atoms of O2 to the left and the equation is balanced:

C2H6+3.5O2 => 2CO2+3H2O

Left Right

C = 2 C = 2

H = 6 H = 6

O = 7 O = 7

But chemical equations typically do not consist of fractional coefficients, so let’s multiply the entire equation by 2 to eliminate the fraction, 3.5:

2(C2H6)+7(O2) => 4(CO2)+6(H2O)

Chemical Reactions

Particles in liquids and gases are constantly moving and colliding with each other. Under the right conditions, these particles can react. To start a reaction, the particles need to have a minimum amount of kinetic energy, known as the activation energy. This is the amount of energy required to break the bonds within each particle.

The rate of a reaction increases as temperature increases because the particles will have more kinetic energy. This means that they will be moving faster and colliding more often and be more likely to have enough energy to break the activation barrier. Increasing concentration also develops the rate of reaction as this will raise the number of particle collisions.

Catalysts can also be added to raise the reaction rate. These work by lowering the activation energy. In this instance, platinum plays a role of a catalyst in the reaction that makes nitric acid from ammonia. Don’t forget that platinum does not appear in the equation. Because during a chemical reaction a catalyst is not consumed or changed.

NH3+O2 => HNO3

Oxidation and Reduction Reactions

Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Reduction is a gain of electrons. In redox (oxidation and reduction) reactions, oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously.

In the reaction:

2Na+Cl2 => 2Na+Cl

Sodium is oxidized as it loses an electron and chlorine is reduced because it gains an electron – sodium is the electron donor and chlorine is the electron acceptor.

Read more >> The Comprehensive HESI Biology Study Guide

Common mistakes students make while studying for this exam

  • Using the wrong book to study from
  • Not understanding that this is a cumulative test and not focusing on what has been taught in class recently. Pay close attention to the material your professor has gone over, as well as any notes you may have taken during lecture time
  • Not understanding the meaning of a word
  • Forgetting to write down what they just read
  • Ignoring the problems at hand and hoping one will solve itself
  • Studying the wrong material
  • Attempting to study too many topics at once and not focusing on one specific subject area or topic  – Studying the wrong material
  • Attempting to study too many topics at once and not focusing on one specific subject area or topic.

How to study for the HESI A2 Chemistry test?

  • Read your HESI A2 chemistry book  and our HESI Chemistry Formulas (or any other equivalent resource) and take notes
  • Make sure to understand examples in the text by reviewing them, asking questions about difficult concepts, and looking up definitions of words you don’t know
  • Watch YouTube videos that are related to chemistry or watch a lecture on the topic
  • Take good notes in class so that they can be your study guide for tests
  • Study with friends! Mimicking each other’s answers is an effective way to learn new material

Tips on how to succeed on the HESI A2 chemistry exam

In this chemistry study guide, we recommend you these useful tips to pass the exam:              

  • Always have a study plan and stick to it! For example, you might want to do one chapter each day for three days before your test. Make sure that there is time in between studying sessions where you rest so that you can absorb new information more effectively.
  • Take the exams in a testing environment. You might not be used to taking tests in your regular classroom, but practicing on test day is important because it may feel more like you’re taking an actual exam
  • Set up realistic expectations for what kind of grades you will get and make sure that you are reaching out to your professor if you have any questions
  • Read the instructions carefully. Be sure that you are answering multiple-choice and true/false questions correctly because they count for more points and could be harder to figure out if you get them wrong
  • Get plenty of sleep! This seems like a no brainer, but it’s easy to forget when you’re cramming the night before your test
  • Don’t let yourself get too hungry or thirsty. You need to have a clear head in order to answer questions and you’ll be more likely to choke on difficult words if you’re thinking about food!            
  • Make sure that there is enough time for everything, but don’t go overboard. You don’t want to spend too much time on any one question and get stuck there.
  • If possible, study with a group of friends or classmates. You’ll have more fun studying if you’re able to hang out and laugh while taking breaks!
  • Get your thoughts down on paper before the test so that it’s easier for you to organize them. This will make it feel more like you’re doing a study guide and less stressful overall    
  • Don’t let yourself get too high or low based on how well you did the first time through an exam or quiz! You should take breaks to refresh your mind by playing games, reading articles, listening to music, etc. 
  • Review your notes after you’ve taken a break and make sure that there are no gaps in your knowledge!     
  • If you know the answer to a question but can’t remember it, try using an acronym or mnemonic device. You may need to look things up if these devices don’t work for you. Use whatever works for you! This will help the information stick in your memory     
  • If you’re taking a break from studying, try closing out all other windows and apps so that they don’t distract you. Also, turn off notifications on your phone or computer while doing this to avoid distractions
  • Don’t get frustrated if what feels like an obvious answer to a question eludes you. You can always try another method of studying, do some research online, or ask your peers for help.

Study for the HESI chemistry test with our free HESI A2 Chemistry Practice Test

Hesi A2 Chemistry Practice Test Resource

Where can you find Hesi A2 Materials and Test Resources? We highly recommend that you use our online HESI practice tests and HESI A2 study guide with complete guidance and practice tests with explanations, and short assessments to measure your understanding. It can help you prepare for exam day by giving you a strong math foundation. Moreover, thousands of practice questions are divided into specific categories (exam topics) to let you get a deeper understanding.

Let’s practice now!