The NREMT Skills Sheets are a must-have for NREMT candidates to successfully pass the NREM examination. Get it for free now!
NREMT Skills Sheets are a must-have for NREMT candidates preparing to take the NREMT exam. This NREMT study guide covers all of the NREMT practical skills and knowledge necessary to successfully pass the NREM examination. Besides, you can combine these documents with our free EMT practice test to be completely prepared for your coming big day!
Firstly, you must pass both the cognitive exam and the psychomotor exam to qualify and get your EMS national certification. Because you must present the same information across the board, so remember to contact your course instructor to walk you through the steps of scheduling your exam before taking your practical exam. The National Registry does not administer the psychomotor exam. This exam is administered by your State EMS Office, so it varies between states how and where you will test.
Secondly, you must be acknowledged that you have completed your program and had comprehensive psychomotor knowledge from your program director before you sign up for the exam for advanced levels of the practical exam, AEMT and Paramedic. In addition, you must obtain a PATT letter (Psychomotor Authorization to Test) and remember to maintain your PATT number, and bring a copy of the letter to the exam.
The following PDF documents give a comprehensive checklist of each skill presented, they are taken from the National Registry website. Please remember that “the State EMS Office or training institution may use different forms and the following performance lists are just a guide for the verification of required skills.” You can find out more information on the NREMT website.
Hope that these NREMT Skills Sheets help you easily reach your final goals!
HESI Biology Study Guide
Are you gearing up to take the hesi biology test? We'll go into detail about what the Biology exam entails and some tips to study for it.
Are you gearing up to take the HESI A2 Biology test? If so, then this blog post is for you! We’ll go into detail about what the exam entails, how to study for it, and what some helpful tips are.
HESI A2 Biology Review
There are 30 questions on the exam and we recommend that the time limit for the Biology test is 25 minutes. Most schools will, but there is a possibility that your school may establish a different time limit, so before exam day, be sure to check it. All information that you need is on the nursing school’s website.
What’s on the HESI A2 Biology Test?
To do well on the Biology section of the HESI exam, There are some main concepts that need to know:
Classification of Organisms
Living things are classified by a system developed by Carl Linnaeus. Organisms are often named by the binomial system of genus and species.
The classification of species allows the subdivision of living organisms into smaller and more specialized groups.
The first division of living things in the classification system is to put them into one of five kingdoms. They are:
animals (all multicellular animals)
plants (all green plants)
fungi (molds, mushrooms, yeast)
protists (Amoeba, Chlorella, and Plasmodium)
prokaryotes (bacteria, blue-green algae)
We can rank the living things according to:
The kingdom is broken into Phylum that has many different organisms. For examples:
Chordata, which have backbones
Arthropod, which has jointed legs and an exoskeleton
Annelids, which are segmented worms
The class follows Phylum. For example, class results in the Chordata phylum being divided into:
The order follows class and as an example, mammals can be further subdivided into a variety of different groups such as:
The Family follows the order. Here are some examples of which carnivores can be split into:
Canidae – dogs
Felidae – cats
Genus, the Felidae family can be further divided into 4 genus examples:
Acinonyx – cheetah
Panthera – lion and tiger
Neofelis – clouded leopard
Felis – domestic cats
Species is the final classification stage. The genus Panthera includes:
Panthera leo (lion)
Panthera tigris (tiger)
As an example, the complete breakdown of the classification of lions:
kingdom – animal
phylum – vertebrate
class – mammal
order – carnivorous
family – cat
genus – big cat
species – lion
The Scientific Method
The Scientific Method is a method of devising and performing experiments that yield meaningful results. It includes a procedural approach to collecting information about the physical world that starts with a formulated question and ends with the rejection of a hypothesis and the reevaluation of the experiment.
We can summarize The Scientific Method as the following:
Question – A curiosity about a phenomenon increases and, in response, a question is formulated. Early thinkers looked at the sky and wondered why it was blue or looked at the grass and wondered why it was green.
Research – After formulating a question, a scientist looks for any relevant research or data already discovered and provided for the phenomenon in question. This is useful in giving some direction in how to build or approach the question.
Hypothesis – The scientist then created a hypothesis, or an educated guess, as to what could be causing the phenomenon. This step is useful in narrowing down the possible options or experimentation.
Experiment – Using available measuring tools and technology, to provide valuable data for the scientist to investigate, an experiment is designed.
Evaluation – The data will then be analyzed and assessed for its validity. Do the observations made support the hypothesis, or do they support a different hypothesis?
Conclusion – In the end, the scientist will determine if the hypothesis is confirmed, in which case other scientists will then recreate the same experiment to identify that the results hold true at a different time or place not using the different methods. The scientist may select to change some of the experimental methods or devise a new hypothesis if the hypothesis is not confirmed.
In summary, the Scientific Method provides a methodical method for investigating experiments, data, and drawing conclusions. It is worthwhile to see that developments in scientific research do not increase from haphazard guessing and checking, but rather through logical design and reasoning. Even a basic familiarity with the method will prove useful while making sense of scientific experiments.
Cells, Tissues, and Organs
The most fundamental unit of life is the cell. Organisms that exist as a single cell, like bacterium, are called prokaryotes and those that are multicellular, like humans, are called eukaryotes. The main difference between these two groups is that eukaryotes possess a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles when prokaryotes do not.
Starting with the knowledge of the cell, its form, and function, we can begin to make sense of how life operates, and what cellular features enable this operation. Learning the components of the cell is not a difficult task, but it can be tedious.
One great way to learn about cells is to complement lists of cellular components/features with drawings of cells – this is particularly useful for eukaryotic cells and their organelles. Accompany these drawings with the name of the cell “part” and what its function or purpose is. For instance, the nucleus houses genetic information and instructions for cellular operations; the mitochondrion helps generate ATP to provide energy for the cell… In studying the differences between plant, animal, and bacterial cells, a mini whiteboard can be a huge asset. Repeatedly diagramming the elements of the various cell types and their parts (noting similarities and differences) will cause long-term retention.
When a group of cells functions together to accomplish tasks, they are operating as tissue. Due to the differences at the cellular level, plants and animals organize into different types of tissue. Plants possess meristematic tissues, which enable them to increase in size, and permanent tissues, which enable them to maintain their form.
Animals possess connective, epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissues. As the tissues in plants, these groups serve different functions and have different forms. Connective tissues provide structure to organisms. Epithelial tissues are those found where cells line and cover organs. Muscle tissue allows animals to move, and nervous tissue enables animals to send and receive signals to its different parts.
Just as cells combine to form tissues, tissues combine to form organs. Humans possess an extensive list of organs that all serve a particular function: some help digest food to provide energy, while others help circulate air and blood. And, like tissues, organs act collaboratively to form organ systems.
The same approach of studying the cells and their functions can be applied to tissues, organs, and then organ systems. It is most important to generate your own diagrams when learning the form and function of these different systems. It is easy to believe that one has a solid grasp of these things when reading from a book or even a page of notes; however, this is much different from being able to work from the ground up in describing the composition of organisms. Condense lists of organismal features into its basic parts, and work through repeatedly processing this information with the aid of a whiteboard and note cards.
Genetics and Heredity
Heredity is the passing on of genetic traits from one generation to the next; it is the reason that children resemble parents, and why humans give birth to other humans. Genetics is the study of the principles underlying heredity.
Workable knowledge of genetics is impossible without becoming familiar with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). This familiarity entails its composition [knowing that guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine (also known as GCAT) are its nucleotides, knowing how they pair, and knowing that its strands run antiparallel, among other features], as well as its function (to house and maintain the instructions for a cell’s operations).
An understanding of “the central dogma” of molecular biology, which states that genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to proteins, can serve as a great outline for how gene transfer takes place. Before moving on to transcription and translation, understanding can help you be familiar with DNA replication, the details of which can be processed through learning the names and functions of the various structures and enzymes involved. Because this is a systematic procedure that incorporates many different parts, drawing and redrawing diagrams can prove worthwhile for long-term retention of the operations.
When these operations are understood, a more general understanding of genetics can be studied. A familiarity with Gregor Mendel and his laws (Law of Dominance, Law of Segregation, and the Law of Independent Assortment) can act as a solid foundation for genetic transfer beyond the microscopic scale. This will lead one to learn about parents, first and second generations, and the expression of phenotypes as predicted with Punnett squares.
Much difficulty in studying genetics and heredity stems from the necessity of learning an exhaustive number of terms and definitions. Intelligent utilization of flashcards and diagrams can address these problems.
Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis and meiosis are processes by which cells reproduce. A mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction where the resulting cell is genetically identical to the parent cell, whereas meiosis results in a cell that contains only half of the chromosomes found in the parent cell. It is wise to note both the similarities and the differences when reviewing the two processes. Similar to the method used for recalling the various taxonomic classes, a mnemonic device can prove valuable in learning the stages of mitosis and meiosis.
While these two reproduction methods share essentially the same steps, it can be useful to think that because meiosis is involved in sexual reproduction, a method for diversifying life; it is more complicated than mitosis. Recalling this can help you remember which mnemonic goes with which process.
Familiarity with the cell cycle is helpful in understanding these two processes. Cells do not arbitrarily reproduce, nor do they reproduce nonstop. Instead, there are triggers and signals that must be present before a cell will begin reproduction. Mitosis can be broken down into four main stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. But there are two additional “stages” of interphase and cytokinesis. The acronym IPMATC can be useful in recalling the order in which these stages happen.
Meiosis shares the same stages, but it occurs in two ordered sequences, so there is an IPMAT 1 and an IPMAT 2. The best method for retaining the details involved in both processes is to utilize a whiteboard and diagrams, drawing and redrawing the steps until this can be done without the aid of any reference material. It may sound repetitive, but this method of learning is invaluable for gaining functional knowledge of this material.
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants transform the energy in light into chemical energy that can be used to fuel life functions. A solid grasp of photosynthesis entails an understanding of what cellular structures enable the process (think chloroplasts, and other structures present in plant cells that are not in animal cells) as well as how the process happens (without carbon dioxide and water the process cannot take place).
Just as you should be familiar with the chemical equation governing cellular respiration (the energy liberating process in animal cells), you should also understand the chemical equation relating to the reactants and products of photosynthesis. Both of these processes rely upon the transfer of free electrons to generate chemical energy. And, just as animal cells carry out the Krebs cycle to generate ATP, plants carry out the Calvin cycle to generate energy. Analogs like this are very useful to recognize as they can reduce two distinct processes into a single concept and thus simplify the material to be learned.
Familiarity with the different types of photosynthesis is also useful to learn. Some types require the presence of light whereas others can be performed in the absence of light. An understanding of what biological purpose or function this serves can be helpful. Similarly to all of the other systems and processes, the usage of a whiteboard and diagrams, as well as a complementary list of the cellular features necessary, can prove invaluable when reviewing involved procedures such as photosynthesis. However, when you can already generate the information without the aid of reference materials, you can be certain that you have developed a firm comprehension of the concept.
Helpful tips for the HESI A2 biology test
Make flashcards. You can either make them yourself with the help of friends, classmates, or family members; you could buy pre-made cards from stores like Target and Walmart; or if not, use sites online such as StudyBlue to create your own deck of study cards at no cost. Flashcards serve as a great way to review important concepts.
Take practice quizzes, exams, and tests before the HESI A21 Biology exam date. This allows you to get a feel for what will be on your test so that when it comes time for the actual exam day, you’ll know what to expect. It also helps reduce anxiety as many people are more nervous about recalling information than putting it together.
Use a study planner to help you plan your time during the week and divide up work for each day so that you’re not overwhelmed. You can make this as simple or detailed as you want, but just try to map out when and how much studying will happen on any given day of the week.
Never start studying for the HESI A21 Biology exam without knowing what you’re going to do after. If that means taking a break from study, make sure you establish when and why it’s appropriate to take one before starting your work.
When studying for the exam, it’s important to work on your strengths and weaknesses. If you’re really struggling with a particular subject or concept, take notes in class so that you can spend more time drilling down into what you find difficult later.
Hesi A2 Biology Practice Test Resource
Where can you find Hesi A2 Materials and Test Resources? We highly recommend that you use our HESI practice website with complete guidance and practice tests with explanations, and short assessments to measure your understanding. It can help you prepare for exam day by giving you a strong math foundation. Take our HESI practice test now!
EMT vs Paramedic: What Is The Difference?
This blog post is going to indicate the difference between EMT vs Paramedic, what these careers entail and how they differ from one another.
If you are interested in a career where you will be saving lives, then becoming an EMT or paramedic might be the perfect choice for you. This blog post is going to introduce what these careers entail and how they differ from one another. We will also talk about certification requirements so that you can start your journey into this rewarding profession.
The amount of education and the level of care for patients are the two biggest differences between EMTs and Paramedics. A paramedic usually has more training and is able to provide a higher level of care for patients, while an EMT cannot.
What are they?
EMTs are also known as Emergency Medical Technicians, they are the person who will be providing pre-hospital care and who are typically the first person on the scene.
Paramedics, also known as Emergency Medical Technicians with Advanced Life Support training, have more advanced skills than an EMT, such as suturing wounds and administering IV drugs. They can provide both basic and advanced life support services for patients in emergency situations.
Where do they work?
Some places where EMTs can often work are ambulance services, governments, hospitals, fire departments, and hospital departments. In these places, a medical director or physician supervises their work and they have a limited scope of practice.
On the other hand, Paramedics most commonly are employed by emergency medical services (EMS). There, they can work with EMTs, but the number of Paramedics is often larger than EMTs. Besides, Paramedics can also work for air ambulances and fire services.
The difference in typical responsibilities between EMT vs Paramedic
As the first responders to an emergency situation, EMTs have some duties such as responding to 911 calls for emergency medical technicians, assessing patients, helping them stabilize, and treating them on the way to hospitals or between facilities. Some of the treatments they can do within their scope of practice are using a backboard and restrains to keep the patients still and safe in the ambulance during transport, providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), or bandaging wounds, controlling external bleeding, preventing shock and further injury in patients. They also must maintain patient records, inform the hospital about the injury or illness, the number of patients being transported, and the expected time of arrival.
In addition to some EMTs’ basic duties, Paramedics can take more advanced practices. For instance, they might provide additional treatment to the patient during transport, such as intravenous (IV) medications or fluid replacement. They can also use more advanced equipment in order to treat patients who have been injured severely enough that they need surgery and transported by helicopter.
Education and experience requirements
If you want to become an EMT, having a high school diploma or GED is sufficient. You do not need an associate or bachelor’s degree. However, completing an EMT training program that is offered by community colleges and vocational schools is a must. Such programs often are completed in 150 hours. In addition, to become a successful EMT, students must also pass the National Registry Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) cognitive exam.
The highest level of EMTs is Paramedics which is why becoming a Paramedic requires more education than becoming an EMT. Students must finish basic and advanced EMT training courses and additional studies. Generally, they also have to work as EMTs for one to two years to gain experience. Students must also take EMT courses at a college or university. These programs typically last between two and four years. That depends on the school’s curriculum, which ranges from 100 to 200-course hours. Paramedics are required to be certified by the National Board for Certification of Emergency Medical Technicians (NBCET).
Certification and license
Obtaining CPR certification is a must for anyone who wants to become an EMT because only a person who possesses CPR certification can enroll in an EMT training program. Many organizations provide students with that certification such as the American Red Cross and the American Heart Association. Another certification students must take to become an EMT is the National Registry Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) certification. NREMT certification is the guarantee of a student’s competence and almost every state requires it for becoming a licensed emergency medical technician. The EMT must be at least 18 years old and should have a valid driver’s license to receive an NREMT license.
In order to become a Paramedic, you are required to obtain all the licenses as an EMT. In addition, Paramedics must pass the NBCET Exam and also be licensed by their state. The National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) administers this exam which is a two-part assessment that consists of an essay test and a computerized practical examination where students are required to perform skills such as cardiac monitoring, intravenous fluid administration, and airway management.
How do you become an EMT?
Steps for becoming an EMT:
18 years old or older with a valid driver’s license.
Complete your basic educational requirements – a high school diploma or GED.
Gain CPR certification from the American Red Cross or the American Heart Association.
Take the NREMT exam and get your certification once you pass it.
You can take boot camp to become certified but this is not mandatory in most states. This usually takes about three weeks).
How do you become a paramedic?
You have to meet the following requirements:
18 years old or older with a valid driver’s license.
Complete your basic educational requirements – a high school diploma or GED.
Gain CPR certification from the American Red Cross or the American Heart Association if you want to work as an EMT and not be limited to just paramedics (this usually takes about three weeks).
Take the NREMT exam and get your certification once you pass it.
Get a job as an EMT for at least two years. This will give you more experience in emergency medical situations.
Complete paramedic school (this usually takes about six months).
In conclusion, the difference between an EMT and a paramedic is that the latter has more training than the former. An EMT provides basic life support (BLS). While paramedics provide BLS plus advanced cardiac care which includes administering medications to patients as well as performing endotracheal intubation (EIT ).
If you are going to take the EMT-B exam, we suggest that our free EMT practice test will be an optimus option for you. Thousands of free EMT practice questions and our unique gamified learning technique will help you get 100% ready for your coming exam. Take it now!
Average EMT Salary by State (2021 updated)
In this blog, we will answer all your questions about how much an EMT makes and the average EMT salary by State. Check it out!
EMTs play a vital role in the healthcare industry. When it comes to emergency medical situations, they are the first responders to help save people’s lives. Although EMTs might not make as much as a paramedic, the demand for them is always high. In this blog, we will answer all your questions about how much an EMT makes and the average EMT salary by State.
What does an EMT do?
Emergency Medical Technicians, also known as EMTs, are the first responders at the scene of an emergency such as serious accidents or injuries. Hospitals, fire departments, police departments, or private ambulance services are some places where EMTs probably work.
There, they are in charge of assessing and treating patients in emergencies so that patient’s conditions can be stabilized long enough while they are being given to the hospital. Maintaining a patient’s airway, addressing bleeding, and preventing shock are several vital treatments EMTs can take care of on the spot.
Do Paramedics make more than an EMT?
EMTs’ main duties are assessing and stabilizing patient’s conditions by providing them with some basic life-saving treatments. On the other hand, paramedics who are licensed medical providers have the right to apply more advanced life-saving measures such as using a defibrillator, administering drugs, inserting an IV line, and intubating a patient.
To become paramedics, students must study both basic and advanced EMT studies. They also have to finish the supplementary courses and on-job training as well. It means that Paramedics require higher education and more experience, so they can earn more than EMTs.
How much does an EMT make?
While paramedics can earn $40,000 as the annual average salary, EMTs earn between $33,000 to $50,000 per year on average. However, EMT salary can be affected by many other factors including the state of the employment and the company a person works for.
How much does an EMT Basic make in an hour?
According to Salary.com, the average annual salaries of EMTs are between $32,860 and $40,760 nationwide. Therefore, they can earn an average of $16 to $20 per hour.
Where do EMTs get paid the most?
Like other careers, EMTs get paid the most in areas with high demand for their services. However, before seeking a job with a high-paid salary at a new place, you should also consider the course of living there, such as the costs of housing, travel, food, and other commodities. When considering these things, you may realize that the high wages offered to tend to be lower ones.
Zip recruiter’s report, which is confirmed by the Bureau of Labour Statistics, showed that New York is the place where EMTs get the highest-paid. The average salary of an EMT there is $15.78 per hour, so they can earn the average salary of $32,823.
Average EMT salary by state
Below are average estimates of wages as reported by Zip Recruiter, ranked from highest to lowest.
The lowest salary
The highest salary
The average salary
Firstly, becoming an EMT is widely known as the first and fundamental step to get to a better job or a better life. Therefore, a lot of people take an EMT course and exam first, but not all of them work as EMTs for their whole life, many EMTs then access higher education to become licensed paramedics or doctors and other higher-paid medical professionals.
It’s a well-known fact that EMT jobs are not as lucrative as they might seem. There are a few reasons why the EMT salary is so low.
Why is EMT pay so low?
Another reason why EMTs are paid so low is they are often seen as a public service. They can work for government-funded positions that do not always pay well, or they can work privately and get paid less than their counterparts in other medical fields.
Last but not least, in some rural areas, volunteers are often in charge of EMTs’ roles. This means that it will be harder for EMTs to earn a wage because there are so many people who are ready to do this job for free.
Are EMTs in demand?
Like all medical professions, the demand for emergency medical services is often stable. It is expected to grow 7 percent between 2018 and 2028. This increasing speed is higher than all other occupations. As a result, finding work as an EMT is easy, and this job would be secured.
In conclusion, it is not hard to become an EMT. The necessary training can be done in a short amount of time, and those who go through this process are likely to find work quickly. To help you achieve your EMT career, we have designed the EMT practice test website to help you improve your understanding of all EMT knowledge areas.
Thousands of free EMT-B practice questions and EMT full tests are available for you. Take it now!
HESI A2 Grammar Study Guide (2021)
The Hesi A2 Grammar Study Guide is designed to help you prepare for the Grammar Section of the HESI A2 exam. Check it out now!
The Hesi A2 Grammar Study Guide is designed to help you prepare for the Grammar Section of the HESI A2 exam. This study guide covers all of the concepts that may be tested on this exam. It also provides tips for how to pass the Grammar Test as well as a free HESI A2 practice test source for you. We hope that this blog post helps prepare you for success!
HESI A2 Grammar Test
Grammar is the final test in the English and language arts portion of the HESI. Being skilled in reading and understanding written passages is very important to success in nursing school, and so is having a large and wide-ranging vocabulary. However, these aren’t enough by themselves. It’s also very important to have a strong grasp of grammar, which is basically the set of rules that govern how to use a language. Of course, there are a lot of different rules that govern how to use English, and many of them are very complicated.
Like the other two exams, it also has 55 questions (five of which don’t count). The recommended time limit for Grammar is 50 minutes, but you’ll want to check with your school to find out the actual time limit you’ll be up against. Many people who have taken all of the sections report that they found the Grammar test to be the most difficult of the three exams in the English portion of the HESI.
What’s On the HESI A2 Grammar Test?
Parts of Speech
Remember all the lessons about nouns and verbs? Well, those could come in really handy right about now! Be sure to familiarize yourself with the eight parts of speech: noun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection. It may also be helpful to know what these mean: pronoun-antecedent, subject, and predicate.
For example, you know a verb is an action or being word. Well, a predicate is just the verb, plus the other words that go with the verb.
Look at this sentence:
Harry wrote the letter neatly.
Wrote is the verb and wrote the letter neatly is the predicate.
Verb Forms and Tenses
This is an important concept you should pay attention to while studying for the HESI A2 Grammar Test.
Besides knowing what part of speech verbs are, you must know what form and tense of a verb to use in different situations. For instance, do you use ring, rang, or rung, when talking about a bell? The rule for this is: ring is what a bell does in the present tense, rang is in the past, and rung is in the past perfect and must use has, had, or have. Other words like this include swim and bring (there is no such word as brang). Candidates may make some very common errors with these words: see, saw, seen.
You can say, “I saw,” but not “I seen.” You have to use have or had with seen. The same goes for ride, rode, and have/has/had ridden. But never use have, had, or has with saw or rode. Yeah, isn’t the English language great?
Unless you are about 2 years old, you know that the sentence “Her went to the store” does not sound right. But what about this? Which one is correct?
– Jamie called Butch and I to dinner.
– Jamie called Butch and me to dinner.
Believe it or not, it’s the second one. The word me is used for objects and I is used for subjects in a sentence. An easier way to determine me versus I is to take the other person out of the sentence and see which sounds right. “Jamie called I to dinner” just doesn’t cut it. It would be “Jamie and I went to dinner” because “Me went to dinner” is just wrong.
Also, practice the use of him and her, as well as when to use himself or herself, instead. Oh, and there is also no such word as “theirselves.”
If you’ve read things on social media lately, you know that some people can go a little crazy with capital letters. Some people use them all the time and some, not at all. For this test, you’ll need to prove you know the rules.
Basically, all sentences and proper nouns (the name of a person, place, or thing) begin with a capital letter. So do titles of people (Mr., Dr., etc.) and a few other word types. You can find a number of lists of capitalization rules online to help you nail this skill.
There are some tricky things to capitalization, too. For example, look at the word dad in these sentences. Both are correct.
– My dad is my best friend.
– I told Dad to come with us.
Why the difference? In the second sentence, Dad is used as a name. In the first, it is not. Saying, “my dad” is the same as saying, “my ball, my dog, my pencil,” none of which need capital letters.
Punctuation basics are easy, right? A period at the end of a sentence, question mark after a question, etc. But there are some confusing points, too. Here are a few rules to remember:
Commas used in a series of words typically include one before the word and in academic writing: I had apples, peaches, and pears for lunch. This is the serial comma, or also known as the Oxford comma. It is a matter of style preference, so remember to check the preferred style guide of the institution, or school, for whom you are writing, or read test instructions, and practice consistency.)
An apostrophe used to show possession is always directly after the person/s or animal/s that actually possess/es the thing: If the bone belongs to one dog, it is “the dog’s bone,” but if it belongs to two or more dogs, it is “the dogs’ bone.”
Looking up other apostrophe rules would be a good idea. There are many.
Apostrophes are not used just to form a plural! “I love my baby’s” is just not right. It should be babies.
Quotation marks: Generally, all other forms of punctuation are written inside the quotes. Jean said, “I am the oldest person here.” And “Hi!” said Tom.
Review where to use a hyphen (-).
The English language has many confusing words. The Grammar section of the HESI exam will test your knowledge of a few of them. To prepare for this section of the test, take note of the following reminders:
Know the differences among your/you’re, there/their/they’re, and its/it’s. You should be able to split any two words that are joined with an apostrophe into those two words and have the sentence still make sense.
Example: “I saw you’re house” may sound right, but if you split you’re into two words, it becomes “I saw you are house,” which is not right. By the same token, “Your my best friend” is not right, either. This time, it is supposed to have the equivalent of you are in it, so “You’re my best friend” works.
Other tricky words to study include: accept/except, effect/affect, and advice/advise. Example: He gives advice. But, He did not advise her.
Know when to use lay and lie, less and fewer, harder and hardest, etc. Trick: Use -er ending when comparing two things and -est for three or more.
It should be “I could have danced all night,” not “I could of danced all night.”
Its is the only possessive that doesn’t have an apostrophe. It’s, with the apostrophe, means it is.
Some of the questions will ask you to decide which form of a sentence is correct. What this means is, “Which form makes the meaning most clear to you, the reader?” This may involve punctuation or word usage. There may be two answers that are actually correct, but only one of them is best.
For example, Jane was just thinking of John, not Tim, when she ran into him. (It is not clear who she ran into.)
This is better: Jane had been thinking of John when she ran into Tim.
It would probably be a good idea to know what each of the following items means and to be able to tell if a sentence has them and where they are in the sentence:
– dependent clause
– independent clause
– weak clause
– active verb tense
Word Pairs and Common Mistakes
Some of the questions in the grammar subsection of the test will be related to clauses, word pairing, and common grammatical mistakes. For example:
Read the following sentences and determine which sentence includes only an independent clause and which includes a dependent clause
Jim went walking in the park
Jim went walking because he needs to lose weight
The first sentence contains only an independent clause. Jim is the subject and went walking is the verb. This statement can stand on its own. The second sentence contains a dependent clause: because he needs to lose weight. This clause cannot stand on its own and needs the independent clause, Jim went walking.
Read the following sentences and identify the correct missing words
Dostoyevsky is the man___ wrote Crime and Punishment
I asked to ___ the package had been delivered
Word pairs are words that have similar meanings and uses and can be easily confused. In the first question, the answer is who. Sometimes, people will use that instead of who, but who should be used when discussing a person. The second answer is whom, which is only used in the objective case (when the pronoun is the object and not the subject), rather than the nominative case (referring to the subject).
Read the following sentences and determine which sentence is a run-on
John and I took a trip to Paris it was a really good experience.
Betsy and Phil went to Italy, and they had a lot of fun.
The first sentence is a run-on sentence. It should read: John and I took a trip to Paris. It was a really good experience. Or, alternatively: John and I took a trip to Paris, and it was a really good experience. The sample sentence contains two clauses that run together. It is missing punctuation, or punctuation, and a transition word.
Tips to study for the Grammar section
There are some tips you should know and remember when studying and taking the test:
Know which punctuation to use, and when.
Study the English usage of pronouns.
Learn how to correctly use possessives.
Review subject-verb agreement thoroughly so that you are confident in your answers.
You will meet many questions in these three areas: sentence structure, word choice, and punctuation.
Make sure to study the Apostrophe section as it’s a common mistake in college-level English courses.
When you see an abbreviation, make sure that you know what dates are abbreviated.
Review the Comma rules for Quotations and lists of items.
Remember that there are two sets of homophones and they’re often confused.
A great way to study Grammar is to read a lot, so practice reading the newspaper as if you were going back in time – without an Internet connection!
Hesi A2 Grammar Practice Test Resource
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